Support Documents for RedHat Linux Users  

We hope that your Linux question or issue is represented here. For Windows or all users support documents please click the appropriate link:

Windows Server Support Documents

Support Documents for ALL Users

If your question or issue does not appear on this page, please return to the JTLnet Technical Support page for more information on how we can answer your questions.

Questions and Issues

Getting Started

1

Using FTP

2

Using the control panel

3

Using FrontPage Extensions

4

Setting Up Features

E-Mail Questions and Issues

5

Using Web Mail

6

E-mail Basics

Domain Names

7

My new / transfer domain

8

Non Network Solutions Domains

Domain Name Support

9

New Domain Names

10

Modifying Domain Names

11

Transferring Domain Names

12

Modifying your contact information

Advanced Questions and Issues

13

Access Logs and Advanced Log Files

14

Using SSI

15

Anonymous FTP

16

Using  Image Maps

17

Using Telnet

18

Using SSH

19

Using CGI

20

CHMODING files

21

Using .htaccess

22

Using SSL

23

Using  PHP

24

Using  MySQL

25

Custom  Installations

Answers and Solutions

1. Using FTP
The following steps will get you started publishing your website using FTP on one of our high-powered RedHat Linux web servers:

A

FTP Applications
Download an FTP Program. We strongly recommend Cute/FTP or WS/FTP. In this demonstration we'll use IPSwitches WS_FTP program.

B

Using Your FTP Program
Got your FTP program? Great, now open it up. If you are using WS/FTP you will see a sessions property window (users of CuteFTP will be asked for the same information just in different places in the program...sorry you will need to find this yourself). Below is what you are asked for and what you need to enter:

 

I. Profile Name: Optional...anything from web site to Bob Smith :)
II. Host Name / Address: Enter your address or IP here. For example "coruscant.org" or "216.123.123.123" (without the quotes, of course.)
III. Host Type: Leave it on auto detect.
IV. UserID: This has been sent to you in your welcome e-mail. In case your forgot it is usually the first 8 letters of your domain name
V. Password: This has also been sent in your welcome letter. Please be aware that the password is case sensitive.

C

Connecting to our Servers with Your FTP Program
Got it all filled out? Great, click on connect and boom away you go! It should log you into a blank directory. At the top of the right screen under "Remote Session" you should the path to your site (example /web3/loginame/)

D

Uploading Files to our Servers with Your FTP Program
On the left are the files in your hard drive. Double-clicking one of those files will upload it into your web space. To start with browse to the folder on your hard drive that has your web site. (Clicking the arrow at the top of that screen will move you up a /dir - double clicking on a /dir will move you into that /dir.)

 

On your right you are now seeing your account. You will see a list of files and dirs. The ones in bold are the only ones you can actually interact with. The rest just leave be, as they are vital to the operation of your site.

 

File Types and Directories
cgiinfo
.xfm
cgi-bin
public_ftp
public_html
.cpanel
.www
.bash_history
.bash_profile
.bash_logout
.ftpaccts
.Xdefaults
access_log
fileman.dat
filemanlog.txt
logo.tiff

 

First Time UNIX Users
If you are a first time UNIX user this may look confusing to you, but don't worry its not that bad! First question:

 

Where do I upload files that I want to be on the web?
Either go into the public_html or .www dir (They both take you to the same place). Any files you upload here will be visible on the web. (Thus, your /public_html is the actual root directory of your website on our linux servers)

 

public_ftp Directory
The public_ftp dir is your own anonymous FTP account. This is what users see when they go to ftp://ftp.yourdomain.com.

 

cgi-bin Directory
The cgi-bin dir is where you should upload any cgi files such as perl scripts. This cgi-bin is access on the web at http://yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/.

 

access_log
The access_log is your access log. You can track visitors to your web site using this. Be warned it is only a text file (in many cases a large text file) and you will have to download a log analyzer to peer deep into it. We strongly recommend Web Trends. Don't worry we do have free of charge web log analyzers installed into your control panel.

 

Found your files?
Great, now highlight them and click the arrow pointing from the left to the right. The files should then begin transferring to your web space!

E

Browsing Your Website Directory on our Servers
Once you have uploaded your files browse to your web space such as http://www.coruscant.org or http://216.123.123.123. If you get a directory listing, then you need to check the files within your web space and make sure you have an "index.html" file. If you don't then create one! Our server also looks for the other docs:

 

index.html
index.htm
index.cgi
index.shtml
default.html
default.htm
index.php

F

Congratulations!
Congrats..you have now published content to your web site!

2. Using the control panel
All accounts come with our outstanding total control account cpanel. You can access your control panel at - www.yourdomain.com/controlpanel/. (This will not be active until your domain has been transferred to our nameservers.) You will be asked to enter your user / pass to gain access to your configuration. The control panel is pretty much self explanatory however a little information on the usage of each section is included below if you get confused along the way:

A

FTP Accounts
Accounts Used for managing access accounts to your web space. The creation of an FTP account will allow users to log into a sub directory from your main account without gaining access to your main accounts. You may resell this space. Sessions show any users that are currently logged into your domain. Settings allow you to modify access to your anonymous FTP site.

B

CGI
We have numerous customizable cgi scripts that have been pre-installed on the server for you to use with your own account. The only thing you'll need to do is select the script you are interested in using, select the colors, style etc., and click the "Make HTML" button. You can then paste the HTML output into any of your HTML files to use that system cgi program.

C

Java
System Java works the exact same was as cgi see above for usage.

D

Web Page Protection
Web page protection is used to limit access to any directory to users who enter a user/pass combo. To protect a directory within your account. This protection is for resources accessed via the WEB only, this will not create an FTP user:

 

I. Click on that dir.
II. Enter a user / pass for access
III. Click add. You can add as many users as you wish to this file.

E

E-Mail
E-mail control panel allows instant creation of e-mail POP3, forwards, and aliases. Because this program is run from a different server you will need to re-enter your user / pass to get into the system.

 

POP3 E-Mail Accounts
A POP3 account is a stand alone incoming e-mail account. if you create u: john p: doe it all mail sent to john@domain.com will be routed to the joe e-mail account. The user joe can then check this mail by login into mail.domain.com using his user name and password. REMEMBER: all user names automatically have a determined amount of letters of the domain name appended to the beginning of the user name. So if john was a JTLNET user the user would use mail.jtlnet.com as his incoming e-mail server and use jtlnetjohn as his log in name to retrieve mail sent to john@jtlnet.com

 

Alias
An alias sends mail sent to one address to another POP3 account within your domain. For example if our recently created john account was going to receive all mail sent to sales@jtlnet.com we would setup sales as an alias to john. Note: by default all names not configured to the root account. So if you sent a message to asdfjkl@domain.com it would be sent to your main root account unless you had set it up as an alias, forward or POP3.

 

Forwarders
A forward account sends mail sent to user@domain.com to an address completely out of your domain. For example if john had an AOl account and wanted to check all his mail there you could setup john to forward to john3435@aol.com.

F

Access Stats
Provide access to many different programs that will analyze your access logs and show you more information about your web sites traffic.

G

Password
Allows you to change your main accounts password. A good suggestion is to change this password at least once a month.

H

File Manager
Allows you to modify the files in your web site in real-time via a web based interface. You can perform many commands such as chmod as well as actually edit the file and save it directly to the web server. Congrats..you have now published content to your web site!

I

Java Chat
Allows you to access your personal java chat server and supplies the code for you to use the product on your own site.

J

Handlers / MIME Types
You will probably never need to use this portion of your control panel. A MIME type is basically what tells the web server that a .html document is a web page, and that a .gif doc is a gif image etc. If you would like to configure a custom MIME type such as making .pictures a gif image file you would enter it here.

K

Error Editor
This is about as much customization as you can get folks! This section lets you customize the errors that your users will see instead of the generic server errors. You could setup a 404 page to redirect users to your main web site instead of the default dead document.

L

CPanel File Location
Sometimes it's easier to cut to the chase and edit your /controlpanel files yourself. Anything related to your linux /controlpanel is stored in a ".cgiinfo" directory within your root directory. You might not be able to see this within many FTP clients, but while you are logged in to your root dir, simply change directories to ".cgiinfo" and you will reach this location. You can always edit these files via telnet, if you have the ability. This is probably the best way to quickly edit or debug your Bulletin Board, and other components created by your /controlpanel.

3. Using FrontPage Extensions
FrontPage extensions are included free upon request with all accounts. If you'd like FrontPage extensions added to your account, please request this at tech@jtlnet.com. Keep in mind that you will need a copy of the FrontPage program from Microsoft before you can begin following the directions below. If your account is a Virtual Basic plan or lower, please remember that your domain name will need to be activated on our nameservers before FrontPage will be available to your account. Additional support documents and complete usage instructions can be found at Microsoft's official FrontPage Home Page.

A

Login
Choose "Open FrontPage Web" from the File Menu in FrontPage Explorer. It will ask you for a Web Server of File Location. Enter yourdomain.com and then "list webs". Next, you will need to select (double-click) the root web. The requested login and password will be the same as your FTP account.

B

Usage
FrontPage supplies you with two separate interfaces. The FrontPage explorer is used to manage the files within your web site. If you open a file in your web site another program called FrontPage Editor will open. When you are connected to your web then all changes made to any file you edit will be saved to your web. Although the software documentation states that you can create the site on your computer and then "publish" it to the web server, we do not recommend this. Many times publishing to the server from your computer will loose the Interactive web bots features that you may have setup when designing your site on your local computer. We recommend that you create your entire site by being connected to your web and saving directly to the server. To move files already created on your web site use the Import command found under the File menu within FrontPage Explorer to select the files to import to the server. This is by far the best method for moving files from your hard drive to the server.

4. Setting Up Features
To Request an Account Add-On or Modification which is not already included in your account, please email sales@jtlnet.com. To setup such items, once they are available to your account, use the process below:

A

SSL
E-mail tech@jtlnet.com a request to have SSL setup for your account. They will e-mail you back an IP address, and a user / pass to upload files that you need to have secured. Or, if you are fortunate enough to reside on a Linux server which has it's own SSL certificate installed, you will have a directory within your /public_html symbolically linked to our anonymous secure site.

B

All Other Modifications / Changes / Site Maintenance
Your on-line control panel is your source for nearly every other type of modification possible. You can access your control panel at:
http://www.sitename.com/controlpanel/ where sitename is the name of your domain.

5. Using Web Mail
Endymion Mailman is a terrific web based e-mail client that allows you to read and send e-mail from any of your pre-existing POP3 accounts without any setup or configuration.

Simply log in with the username and password combination of one of your POP accounts and be sure to specify "mail.yourdomain.com" as the mail server.

Take Me To Web Mail

Please note that this feature shouldn't be used as your primary client for e-mail. The use of Outlook, Eudora or some other type of e-mail client is recommended. If you are away from your desk however, this webmail program is definitely an excellent choice.

6. E-mail Basics
As a linux customer, the setup of every single email item available to your account is automated by your /controlpanel. (Located at http://yourdomain.com/controlpanel/) Thus, there is no need to contact the technical staff to setup any of your POP3 accounts, forwards, aliases, lists, or auto-responders. Simply check out the Email section of your /controlpanel, and then the various options within.

Hopefully the information below will help! Remember that the mail functionality for your domain won't be available on our servers until your entire domain is registered to our nameservers. If you are having any problems with your email, and this section didn't help you, check out the "Email Problems" link under the support section for Red Hat Linux accounts. Thank you!

Within each menu, there is a small help guide explaining the exact purpose of each item. We have outlined a few additional points below:

A

Incoming POP3 & Outgoing SMTP
Remember to always use "mail.yourdomain.com" as the incoming (POP3) and outgoing (SMTP) server in your local email client, such as Outlook Express.

B

Linux Mail Control Center
In the Linux mail control center, the forwarding function provides forwarding to outer address, and can be used to alias one account to another. Thus, if you want aces@fightwithhonor.org to head to a POP3 account of acebird@fightwithhonor.org, use a forward to make this happen.

C

E-Mail Login
Any POP3 accounts you setup other than your default account will use your email address as the login. For example, if you request , the actual login for that POP3 box will be "mouser@cheesewhiz.org" (your email address). Yes, email heading to mouser@cheesewhiz.org is received by the "mouser@cheesewhiz.org" POP3 box.

D

If You Forget Your Login
If you forget the exact login of one of your POP3 accounts, simply head over to the "POP account" menu within your /controlpanel to find out exactly what the logins are.

E

Your Default Address
Your "default address" is the root catch-all mailbox. It receives messages heading to all addresses which aren't setup as unique POP accounts within your domain. Keep in mind that the default address account does NOT use and email address, like other POP accounts. The login for your default address is the same as the main FTP login for your account.

F

Solving Problems
If it seems that you cannot lock a POP3 account to retrieve messages for any reason, the quickest way to solve this for yourself is to delete and recreate the account with your /controlpanel. This saves time as it bypasses asking our support staff for assistance. Yes, the changes you make to your email items with your /controlpanel are done in real time.

G

Mailing List Feature
The mailing list feature is very simple, please keep that in mind. If you require a more powerful listserv program, you should probably look elsewhere. We cannot utilize a robust listserv on our webhosting machines without causing the server's overall performance to suffer.

7. My new / transfer domain
Please keep in mind that JTL Networks is not responsible for registering domain names. As a customer, you will need to register your domain with the proper authority. To register .com, .net, and .edu domains, please follow this link.

If you have asked us to submit a modify template to the InterNIC we will submit the modify domain form to the InterNIC for you when your account is configured. Within 24-48 hours, InterNIC will e-mail the administrative, and technical contacts of the domain and ask for approval of the modification. You will need to respond to that e-mail entering "y" where asked to. (The InterNIC describes precisely how to do this in the e-mail.) Within 24-48 hours after that your domain should be transferred to our servers.

If you are not the admin, technical, or billing contact on the domain you will need to e-mail us and ask for the tracking number on your domain name transfer request. Once you have this you will need to send a fax to the InterNIC with the following information:

A

Include your company name / address / phone on the letter (letterhead is desirable.)

B

Request that the domain name be transferred to the name servers that are listed in your account email that you recieve from us.

C

Reference the NIC Tracking number that our tech staff has given you.

D

Have the company president sign the request and fax it to:
561-989-8784 ATTN: Domain Registration.

You may also wish to call the InterNIC at: 703-742-4777 to make sure your request will be processed. Surprisingly, the InterNIC is usually excellent at getting such issues resolved over the phone.

8. Non Network Solutions Domains
A thorough list of locations to register domains which are not controlled by Network Solutions can be found here: http://www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html.

Please note that JTL Networks does not offer registration or modification services to non-InterNIC type domains. As a customer, you will need to take care of this process yourself. We will, however, do everything in our power to get the DNS entries on our servers working with any type of domain registration service you require. Simply contact tech@jtlnet.com if you are having problems delegating your non-InterNIC domain to our nameservers, which you will recieve via email.

9. New Domain Names
All .com, .net, .org, and .edu domains are registered by Network Solutions Inc. otherwise known as the InterNIC. This section is provided to help you deal with the InterNIC and their policies.

Registering a New Domain
As a customer, you will be responsible for registering a new domain to our nameservers, if this is required for your account. The domain registration form for .com, .org., and .edu domains is located here: http://www.networksolutions.com/purchase/

Additional information on the terms used by Network Solutions is described below:

A

Organization Information
This section is very important and is next to impossible to change or modify in the future so make sure you are 100% certain that you are choosing the organization name you wish to use with this domain.

B

Technical Contact Information
This will show up as the technical contact on your domain. If you are a reseller you may wish to use your own company's name for anonymity, but otherwise you should enter our NIC handle which is: JL23752. This is a "role" type contact.

C

Administrative Contact Information
You should enter your own information here. If you have a NIC handle you may want to use that. You can use the InterNIC's whois form to lookup your NIC handle. (http://rs.internic.net/cgi-bin/whois )

D

Billing Contact Information
Again you should enter your own information here. If you have a NIC handle you may want to use that. You can use the InterNIC's whois form to lookup your NIC handle.

E

Domain Name Server Information
As the Primary DNS server enter:
NS4.JTLNET.COM with the IP address of 69.36.9.72 . The Secondary DNS server is NS5.JTLNET.COM with the IP address of 69.36.2.104. You can also purchase the Anonymous DNS server add-on from us so you will be able to use NS.YOURDOMAIN.COM for this section.

F

Review Answers
This will show the template that you have created to register your domain. Verify that all the info is correct and click the "Mail me a copy of this form" button. The InterNIC will then send you a copy of the form which you can send right back to hostmaster@internic.net (or reply to their message) and within 24-48 hours your new domain name should be registered!

G

Questions
tech@jtlnet.com

10. Modifying Domain Names
All .com, .net, .org, and .edu domains are registered by Network Solutions Inc. otherwise known as the InterNIC. This section is provided to help you deal with the InterNIC and their policies.

Exact details on this particular form are below. If you have difficulties with this, you can always call the Network Solutions representatives, as on their website it states:

A

Modifying a Domain
We will gladly send in the modification for a domain, however, you will need to be sure that the current contacts will be agreeing of the changes. (The current contacts on a domain are revealed at a whois lookup... http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/wh ois) This is something that you can do on your own. The modify domain form is
located at: http://www.networksolutions.com/makechanges/
Enter your CURRENT e-mail address and the domain you wish to modify and enter into the form.

B

Network Solutions Accounts
"All you need to get started is your Network Solutions Account Number and Password. If you have forgotten your account number and password, please call 1-888-642-9675 ( 24 hours / 7 days).
Outside US: 1-703-742-0914 for assistance."

C

Organization Information
You will not be able to change this.. don't bother trying.

D

Administrative Contact Information
Keep as is, it should be you already.

E

Billing Contact Information
Keep as is, it should be you already.

F

Virtual Name Servers
If you have purchased virtual name servers and are going to modify your domain to use NS.YOURDOMAIN.COM, then be sure to use those nameservers instead of the ones listed above.

G

Review Answers
This will show the template that you have created to register your domain. Verify that all the info is correct and click the "Mail me a copy of this form" button. The InterNIC will then send you a copy of the form which you can send right back to hostmaster@internic.net (or reply to their message) and within 24-48 hours you should be sent an e-mail asking you to approve the transfer. Respond to this e-mail and enter "Y" where asked and your domain will be transferred.

11. Transferring Domain Names
All .com, .net, .org, and .edu domains are registered by Network Solutions Inc. otherwise known as the InterNIC. This section is provided to help you deal with the InterNIC and their policies.

Exact details on this particular form are below. If you have difficulties with this, you can always call the Network Solutions representatives, as on their website it states:

A

Modifying a Domain
We will gladly send in the modification for a domain, however, you will need to be sure that the current contacts will be agreeing of the changes. (The current contacts on a domain are revealed at a whois lookup... http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/wh ois) This is something that you can do on your own. The modify domain form is
located at: http://www.networksolutions.com/makechanges/
Enter your CURRENT e-mail address and the domain you wish to modify and enter into the form.

B

Network Solutions Accounts
"All you need to get started is your Network Solutions Account Number and Password. If you have forgotten your account number and password, please call 1-888-642-9675 ( 24 hours / 7 days).
Outside US: 1-703-742-0914 for assistance."

C

Organization Information
You will not be able to change this.. don't bother trying.

D

Administrative Contact Information
Keep as is, it should be you already.

E

Billing Contact Information
Keep as is, it should be you already.

F

Virtual Name Servers
If you have purchased virtual name servers and are going to modify your domain to use NS.YOURDOMAIN.COM, then be sure to use those nameservers instead of the ones listed above.

G

Review Answers
This will show the template that you have created to register your domain. Verify that all the info is correct and click the "Mail me a copy of this form" button. The InterNIC will then send you a copy of the form which you can send right back to hostmaster@internic.net (or reply to their message) and within 24-48 hours you should be sent an e-mail asking you to approve the transfer. Respond to this e-mail and enter "Y" where asked and your domain will be transferred.

12. Modifying your contact information
All .com, .net, .org, and .edu domains are registered by Network Solutions Inc. otherwise known as the InterNIC. This section is provided to help you deal with the InterNIC and their policies.

Exact details on this particular form are below. If you have difficulties with this, you can always call the Network Solutions representatives, as on their website it states:

A

Modifying Contact Info
If you have a domain name the InterNIC has assigned your NIC Handle. You can find your NIC handle by doing a whois on your domain. You will be able to see your NIC handle listed in parentheses to the right of your name in administrative, or billing contact.

  The form to modify a contact info is at http://www.networksolutions.com/makechanges/
Enter your domain name and click proceed.
  Select the "Contact Form," to modify your contact.
  Enter your CURRENT e-mail address and your NIC handle. You will be able to see your current contact info and make the changes needed.

B

Review Answers
This will show the template that you have created to register your domain. Verify that all the info is correct and click the "Mail me a copy of this form" button. The InterNIC will then send you a copy of the form which you can send right back to hostmaster@internic.net (or reply to their message) and within 24-48 hours you should be sent an e-mail asking you to approve the transfer. Respond to this e-mail and enter "Y" where asked and your domain will be transferred.

13. Access Logs and Advanced Log Files
To view the statistics of your site, please use the /controlpanel which is included with each UNIX-based account. The standard logs include information that lets you know how many times each page is accessed, and who access it etc. The log file created by the Apache server is simply a raw text file and will need to be analyzed by a program such as Web Trends, or our control panel which has three separate log file analyzers build into it. If you would like a raw log file to build within your root unix directory, please contact tech@jtlnet.com with this request.

If you have activated advanced log files then you will also see information that shows what sites referred the visitors who came to your site.

14. Using SSI

A

How To Enable Server Side Includes
I. Renaming the file to .shtml: On our server any file name .shtml will be parsed. So instead of having an index.html file, you would name it index.shtml. This is the easiest way of enabling includes.
II. CHMODing the file to 755: With CHMOD 755 you can also mark a file as executable. It is important to only make the files which you want parsed executable. This poses certain security issues, as well as a strain on our resources, as the processor has to work harder to parse a file.
III. Adding "Options +Includes" to your site's configuration: If you want to use SSI based includes you may need to create a file in your web root directory (normally /wwwroot/domainname.com/ in FTP) named ".htaccess" containing the line "Options +Includes" (without the quotes).

B

Reasons for Using SSI
SSI is often used to include something into an HTML page. You can insert the contents of one HTML page into another page. An example of a practical usage for this would be to include your e-mail address at the bottom of each page. If you do this as an include, then when your e-mail address changes, you will only have to update it on one page and not your entire web site. Another usage is to call cgi scripts into action. Many counters, clocks, and other scripts are called using SSI. The command used will most likely be provided in the documentation of your cgi script.

15. Anonymous FTP
Anonymous FTP is not currently available on JTLnet shared hosting and VRA plans.

16. Using Image Maps
If you visit web sites and see a single image with many different links then chances are you are looking at an Image Map. There are two major types of image maps.

One is a client slide and the other is server slide. A client slide uses the visitor's own browser to work. It is inserted in the HTML code itself. This type of map does not work with some older web browsers. The second major map type is server slide. It requires a separate .map file. When a user selects a link it lets the server examine the information in the .map file and report back to the browser where to go. No matter what map you decide to use we recommend using either MS Front Page (see details in your Owners Manual) or Web Image

17. Using Telnet
JTLnet has completely phased out Telnet access, please see using SSH below

18. Using SSH
Need access to your unix shell? Why not use a safe substitute for telnet: SSH, the secure shell. If you would like to use SSH, you will need to send a request from your members area for it to be enabled on your account.

We recommend using SSH over telnet because all data sent by SSH is encrypted- thus, there is no chance of someone sniffing out your account's password as you send data to and from our webserver.

If you haven't downloaded an SSH client before, simply head on over to www.download.com and grab a copy of SecureCRT. Remember, once you are in the linux shell, the commands are exactly the same regardless if you are using Telnet or SSH. They both serve the same purpose

19. Using CGI
CGI, Common Gateway Interface, includes programs that run on the server to enhance the quality and functionality of a web site. There are many resources on-line that allow the downloading of free cgi scripts. ( For instance: http://www.worldwidemart.com/scripts/ )

JTLnet does allow running of cgi scripts on the server, however they must conform to our acceptable server resource usage policy. If we deem that a script is using an excessive amount of server resources, it will be disabled. We do offer shell access to our servers for debugging or creating scripts- you will need Telnet access. We highly recommend that you setup Linux as a second operating system on your own workstation, as the more you familiarize yourself with this operating system, the better it will perform for you. As often as possible, however, our web servers should be used only to upload the fully debugged final version of a cgi script so performance and uptime for other customers on the server is not compromised.

Before a CGI script will work certain modifications must be made to them. Certain paths must be specified in some scripts. After the "#" in the first line of the perl script, the path to perl must be specified. /usr/bin/perl should suffice for this path. Below is a printout of a "whereis perl" from our system.

perl: /usr/bin/perl

Another program that needs to be specified in many scripts is sendmail. This is located at /usr/lib/sendmail

Also, often you will need to know the exact physical path to your root directory on the webserver your account exists upon. On our newer Linux servers, the path to your root directory is:
/home/username

Obviously, substitute "username" with the login you were assigned when you first received your account details. Also, keep in mind that when you configure your CGI, that your /wwwroot/domainname.com is included in your path. For instance, if you have a guestbook.pl script in your /cgi-bin, the exact physical path to that file is:

/home/username/wwwroot/domainname.com/cgi-bin/guestbook.pl

The documentation of your program should tell you what lines that you need to changed in order to get your script up and running.

When you have all your modifications made you will want to save the file as a .pl or .cgi file. (Make sure to use a plain text format.) When you upload the file DO NOT upload in binary mode, instead using ASCII. Uploading in binary will cause the server not to recognize the scripts as executables. Most FTP clients will upload .pl or .cgi files in binary mode by default so you will need to change this. You will need to upload the scripts into your cgi-bin directory for security reasons, however they will execute from anywhere within your account.

The last step is to set the file permissions. This is otherwise known as chmoding and can be done from most FTP clients. For specifics on chmoding you can refer to our "chmoding files" help section.

20. CHMODING files
When using a UNIX system it is sometimes necessary to change file permissions. This is done using the CHMOD command. There are two different ways to CHMOD a file:

A

FTP
Certain FTP clients such as Cute FTP and WS/FTP Pro allow for a chmoding directly within FTP. To do this you would highlight the file that you want to use, and select from the command menu "change file permissions." There is on option for "manual." This is where you will enter the desired CHMOD. Many other FTP clients will support CHMODing as well, we recommend checking the documentation.

B

Reasons for CHMODING
CHMODing files can be done for a variety of reasons. You can CHMOD files to do things such as:

 

mark them executable, give them write permission, restrict access to them, and a variety of other reasons. It is important to note that chmoding is nearly impossible to avoid. If you are trying to run a certain cgi script it could require execute permissions on the script itself, write permissions on a directory, and read on an informational page. Your cgi scripts should contain the proper documentation to inform you of the proper CHMOD's.

The chart below shows examples of different CHMOD's and the permissions associated with them. In most cases, "755" should always be used when configuring a script you've written yourself or located on the web.

Command

Meaning

chmod 777 filename

The file is available for Read, Write, and Execute for the owner, group, and world.

chmod 755 filename

The file is available for Read, Write, and Execute for the owner; and Read and Execute only for the group and world.

chmod 644 filename

The file is available for Read and Write for the owner, and Read only for the group and world.

chmod 666 filename

The file is available for Read and Write for the owner, group, and world. I wonder if the 666 number is just a coincidence. Anybody can create havoc with your files with this wide-open permission mask

21. Using .htaccess
You can force a login to a sub-directory of your UNIX site via the web by using .htaccess. This can easily be implemented on your account by using the online /controlpanel included with any linux-based account on our servers.

For more information for using .htaccess, check out this online resource:

http://www.mnsinc.com/techpage/login.htm

You can implement .htaccess easily via Telnet or SSH (preferably) as well. Check out the Using Telnet, and Using SSH sections of our support documents to find our requirements for this feature.

22. Using SSL
Secure Socket Layers provide a means for submitting encrypted data via the web. SSL works based upon a public key / certificate system. As data is transmitted it is encrypted into 40 bit encryption and the web server then decrypts the data once it is transmitted. In the rare occasion that the data was stolen during the transmission process the only data that they would be would be encrypted which means that viewing it would show nothing but letters, numbers, and symbols randomly mixed.

In order for this process to work without many warning messages from IE and Netscape about possible security hazards a certificate must be obtained from a trusted source. A certificate is only good for one domain name.

If you would like to enable SSL on your account e-mail tech@jtlnet.com and ask to take advantage of this feature. You will upload any files that you want to run with SSL to your /secure directory within your /public_html. These files would then be viewable at (for example):

https://orders.secure-orders.net/dirname/ where /dirname is the directory our tech staff symbolically linked to a specific phyiscal directory within your account space. If you would like to have your own certificate installed so that customers can navigate your site via https://www.yourdomain.com you will have to purchase your own certificate and have us generate a key request and install it on the server. This falls under our $60 / hour rate. We recommend using Thawte for this purpose

23. Using PHP
PHP is an excellent way to embed scripting languages such as C, Java, and Perl into your website's pages. It is a very efficient way to implement advanced tasks such as database queries, as well.

You will be able to run .php pages from any UNIX-based account. Users with an Advanced account on a UNIX system can implement and maintain a mySQL database entirely with the use of PHP as well. For more information on writing in PHP, stop by www.php.net.

For information on mySQL, check out the "Using mySQL" section of our Online Support, or check out mySQL's homepage at www.tcx.se.

24. Using MySQL

A

Instructions on how to setup and configure MySQL for your account using the control panel
Go to your online control panel and click on the advanced menu. Once there you click on MySQL. First you create a database then create a user. After you have created the database and user you must then add the user to the database. To do this click on the drop down list box in the middle of the page and locate the specific user that is associated with the particular database and click add user. Be advised that the username which you created using the control panel will have the prefix of of your main account login name. (ex: if your main account login name is test and the MySQL user that you created is car the control panel will create the mysql user test_car. Your password will not change.

B

Information on how to write database connection code using PHP
$connection = mysql_connect("localhost","mysql_login","password") or
die("Couldn't connect to server.");
$db = mysql_select_db("phpdevdb",$connection) or die("Couldn't select database.");

C

Instructions on how to configure PHPMyAdmin to manage your MySQL databases
First get a copy of PHPMyAdmin for the site below.
http://www.phpwizard.net/projects/phpMyAdmin/

 

Next unzip the program either on the server or locally and edit the config.inc.php file as prescribed by the documentation. Next you will want to upload or move PHPMyAdmin to a web readable directory in the public_html folder.

 

A Sample PHPMyAdmin config file is below. Be sure that you read the instructions above associated with creating databases and users using your online control panel before you proceed.

 

// You can disable a server config entry by setting host to ''.
$cfgServers[1]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQLhostname
$cfgServers[1]['port'] = ''; // MySQL port - leave
blank for default port
$cfgServers[1]['adv_auth'] = false; // Use advanced
authentication?
$cfgServers[1]['stduser'] = 'root'; // MySQL standard user (only
needed with advanced auth)
$cfgServers[1]['stdpass'] = ''; // MySQL standard password
(only needed with advanced auth)
$cfgServers[1]['user'] = 'mysql_username'; // MySQL user
(only needed with basic auth)
$cfgServers[1]['password'] = 'yourpassword'; // MySQL password
(only needed with basic auth)

25. Custom Installations
If you require a program or module be installed on a UNIX server for usage with your account, this is usually not a problem. You will need to provide us with an explanation of why you require the feature, and any documentation which is included with the product.

The installation of such items falls under our $75 per hour Custom Server Installation fee. (There is a $30 minimum on each instance, as most items take no longer than 30 minutes to install.)

You'll need to initially request such an action with support@jtlnet.com . Once approved, you will need to send all the information required to the Technical Staff, as well as a URL to the required installation files or the files themselves.

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